Question: Is Vitamin A Teratogenic?

How much vitamin A is safe for pregnancy?

Because of the teratogenic effects secondary to excessive vitamin A intake, the WHO recommends as safe during pregnancy a maximum dose of up to 10,000 IU daily or 25,000 IU weekly after the first 60 days of gestation [10,12,38]..

Specifically, pregnant women should receive up to 10,000 IU vitamin A daily or up to 25,000 IU vitamin A weekly as an oral liquid, oil-based preparation of retinyl palmitate or retinyl acetate. Supplementation should be continued for a minimum of 12 wk during pregnancy until delivery.

How does vitamin A harm an unborn baby?

The babies of women who consumed more than 10,000 international units of vitamin A daily — nearly four times the recommended amount — from supplements or food or both were more likely to be born with malformations of the head, heart, brain and spinal cord.

How much vitamin A is safe?

Levels of up to 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) have been considered safe. Beyond that, though, vitamin A can build up to cause liver damage and brain swelling; pregnant women who ingest too much run the risk of fetal damage.

Where is Vitamin A found?

Concentrations of preformed vitamin A are highest in liver and fish oils [2]. Other sources of preformed vitamin A are milk and eggs, which also include some provitamin A [2]. Most dietary provitamin A comes from leafy green vegetables, orange and yellow vegetables, tomato products, fruits, and some vegetable oils [2].

How much vitamin A is in a carrot?

Carrots. Carrots are rich in beta carotene, and half a cup of raw carrots contains 459 mcg of vitamin A and 184 percent of the DV.

How much vitamin A is teratogenic?

High dietary intake of preformed vitamin A appears to be teratogenic. Among the babies born to women who took more than 10,000 IU of preformed vitamin A per day in the form of supplements, we estimate that about 1 infant in 57 had a malformation attributable to the supplement.

Why vitamin A is not good for pregnant?

Given that vitamin A is fat soluble, your body stores excess amounts in the liver. This accumulation can have toxic effects on the body and lead to liver damage. It can even cause birth defects. For example, excessive amounts of vitamin A during pregnancy has been shown to cause congenital birth abnormalities.

Which vitamin A is bad for pregnancy?

During pregnancy, it’s important not to get too much preformed vitamin A, which can cause birth defects and liver toxicity in high doses. (However, you can get as many carotenoids as you want from fruits and vegetables.)

Is 5000 IU of vitamin A safe during pregnancy?

Pregnant women should avoid multivitamin or prenatal supplements that contain more than 1.5 mg/day (5,000 IU) of vitamin A. Vitamin A from beta-carotene is not known to increase the risk of birth defects.

Why is vitamin A important?

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. Vitamin A is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. Vitamin A also helps the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs work properly.

What is the best form of vitamin A?

The best-known carotenoid is beta carotene, but there are several others (1). The vitamin A potential of carotenoids — or how much vitamin A they provide after being converted into active vitamin A in the body — is expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAE) (1).